Why High Injection Pressure Cut Down Fuel Consumption And Increase Performance And Torque
|   Wednesday, February 26, 2014
To start off big: optimized injection systems atomize fuel much smoother, thus improving combustion. Lower fuel consumption is just one of the benefits of this technology.

The common-rail injection system CRS3-25 represents the first Bosch piezo injector for cars, operating at injection pressures of 2,500 bar. With a higher injection pressure, the new models represent the vanguard of Bosch piezo technology.

The pressure generated by a common-rail pressure is approximately equal to that of a 2,000 kilograms rhinoceros when it sits on an area the size of a fingertip.
In the last phase of the process, the compressed fuel is injected at the speed of a supersonic plane into the combustion chamber.

A high injection pressure generates increased specific power and more torque. Therefore, increasing the injection pressure of the engine makes it more powerful: the time required for combustion is considerably reduced once the engine is running at full load and at high speeds. Therefore, the fuel must be injected into the engine quickly at a high pressure to develop optimal strength.

If, in the combustion chamber, there is more air, then the injection pressure must be increased. A large amount of fuel must be introduced in a short period of time to obtain the optimum air-fuel mixture. Many turbocharged engines – especially twin-turbo and tri-turbo models - receive injection pressures over 2,000 bar.

A high injection pressure is a key factor in reducing untreated emissions of an engine. Indeed, in the compact class vehicles, it can help a lot, often eliminating the need to treat exhaust gases. If the pressure of injection is higher, both the injector and the injection nozzle can be designed more accurately. This improves the atomization and results in a better fuel-air mixture, which means that the optimum combustion is obtained, and that soot is not formed.

A higher injection pressure requires more than a redesigned injector. Thanks to its complete expertise in diesel systems, Bosch can assemble a system that includes not only a finely tuned control unit, but also the fuel pump, common-rail system and the injector.

"Over the next decade, the vast majority of diesel engines will manage with injection pressures of around 2,000 bar. Although 3,000 bar is not unrealistic, it will be limited to racing cars and high-performance diesel engines" said Dr. Markus Heyn, President of Diesel Systems division at Robert Bosch GmbH.

Bosch began with an injection pressure of 100 bar. That was the goal at the start back in 1922. Over 100 bar saw the first series production inline injection pump on the MAN truck in 1927. The 300 bar VE distributor injection pump was used on the VW Golf D, 1975.

The 900 bar axial-piston pump saw use on the Audi 100 TDI in 1989. Next we have the 1,350 bar common rail (on the Alfa-Romeo 156 2.4 JTD, 1997). Further up, we got the 1,500 – 1,750 bar VP 44 radial-piston pump (on the Opel Vectra and Audi A6 2.5 TDI, 1996, plus BMW 320d, 1998).

Getting closer to today, the 2,050 bar unit injector system was used on the VW Passat TDI in 1998, and the first common rail with piezo injector over 2,000 bar was first deployed on the Audi A6 3.0 TDI, in 2003/4. The 2,500 bar CRS3-25 common-rail system will be available in series-production vehicles from 2014 onwards.
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